James Webbs space telescope: a new era in astronomy
This telescope should replace Hubble’s space telescope and Spitzer’s space telescope. James Webb’s space telescope (JWST, or simply James Webb) will be a big infra-red telescope with a 6,5-meter main mirror (in 5-6 times more, than at Hubble). Value of it is difficult for overestimating, as Hubble was, probably, one of the greatest inventions of mankind, and James Webb is declared in 100 times to more powerful.
Eventually, this telescope will begin with that moment on which Hubble’s telescope, namely from Ultra and Extreme Deep Field pictures stopped. Besides Planck’s satellite pictures and WMAP (which photos of radiation of a space microwave background provided to us), it is the oldest pictures of light which we made, the farthest galaxies. Unfortunately, soon they the range of visible light is left, will pass through red shift in infra-red because of Universe expansion.
Fortunately, James Webb’s tools are developed for work mainly in an infra-red range of an electromagnetic range, with some possibilities of work in a visible range. It will be sensitive to light with length of a wave of 0,6-28 micrometers. The advanced scientific tools onboard a telescope will have four main subjects for studying: first light and reionizatsiya era, meeting of galaxies, birth of stars, protoplanetary and planetary systems and life origin.
Our best guesses say that the first stars were in 30-300 times (or perhaps and more) massivny our Sun and in million times is brighter, burning out all for couple of millions years before blowing up in the form of the supernew.
High energy of ultra-violet light of these first stars was capable to split atoms of hydrogen on electrons and protons (or to ionize them). Supervision of ranges of far quasars say to us that it occurred, when nearly billion years was the Universe. This era is called as "a reionizatsiya era». Process during which the most part of neutral atoms of hydrogen collapses accruing radiation, gives the chance to study the first stars indirectly.
We want to study this process as precisely we do not know when passed this period, and the first stars made strong impact on formation of late objects like galaxies. The first light sources represented itself as seeds of late formation of large objects.
Also the first stars could коллапсировать in black holes. Eating a matter, these black holes could form mini-quasars. They, in turn, could grow and merge, having formed those massive black holes which are found in the ALL centers of galaxies.
Assembly of galaxies
Astronomers know that the first galaxies were formed later about billion years after formation of the Universe. The majority of these galaxies were small and changeable, but some drew parallels to present galaxies.
Despite a huge treasure of already collected data, there is a set of the questions deserving the best answers. Scientists for certain do not know, how galaxies and that gave them their forms were formed. Scientists do not know, how chemical elements were distributed in galaxies and a detail of how the central black holes in galaxies influence parental galaxies.
Scientists also in search of answers that occurs when small and big galaxies face and unite — are necessary answers which will be better than the current computer models.
Analyzing early galaxies and comparing them with newer, it is possible to trace complete evolution and system growth. Supervision by means of spectroscopy of hundreds or thousand galaxies will help scientists to understand, how elements more hard than hydrogen were formed and built as galaxies progressed in centuries.
Birth of stars and protoplanetary systems
Thanks to Kepler’s space telescope (which ceased to hunt for planets because of malfunction), we know that a large number of stars has huge gas planets which round them rotate. The number of the confirmed planets and candidates for planets is estimated in thousands. Considering variety of the unusual planetary systems, many questions confuse now scientists.
Scientists understand that in order that it is better to understand, how planets gathered, they need more supervision of planets round young stars, and also it is more than supervision of the remained garbage round stars which can merge and form planets.
Formation of stars
And here game is entered by the infra-red. Technology which can punch dusty, dense covers of the clouds hiding kernels in which there is a formation of stars. In their visible range it is not visible and there is no possibility to see. The advanced system of photography and spectroscopy of a space telescope of James Webb will allow us to observe stars in process of their education in dusty cocoons. It will have also possibility to do pictures of disks round stars and to study organic molecules which promote development and life distribution.
To track Earth and life sources in the Universe, scientists should study formation and evolution, including a material round stars where planets are formed. A key question it is necessary to understand, how construction bricks on planets were died. Scientists do not know, whether everything planets in planetary system were formed on a place or came inside after formation in external limits of system.
First planets and life origin
The ice and dusty garbage of our external Solar system is remains of those times when our system was very young. James Webb’s space telescope will receive infra-red pictures of huge planets and planetary systems and will specify their age and masses, measuring their ranges. Webb also can measure ranges of disks round stars to define the components of such disks leading to emergence of planetary systems. Studying of these areas in details can throw light on a life origin on Earth.
Project start while is planned for 2018, and together with it and revolution in ours of understanding of space.